Health & Fitness

Let's Quit Sugar With Audiobook – Let's Quit Sugar

Product Name: Let's Quit Sugar With Audiobook – Let's Quit Sugar

Click here to get Let's Quit Sugar With Audiobook – Let's Quit Sugar at discounted price while it’s still available…

All orders are protected by SSL encryption – the highest industry standard for online security from trusted vendors.

Let's Quit Sugar With Audiobook – Let's Quit Sugar is backed with a 60 Day No Questions Asked Money Back Guarantee. If within the first 60 days of receipt you are not satisfied with Wake Up Lean™, you can request a refund by sending an email to the address given inside the product and we will immediately refund your entire purchase price, with no questions asked.

Description:

All You Need To Quit Sugar At One Place

(Make sure your sound is turned on. Please wait up to 10 seconds for the video to load.)

Reducing your added sugar intake is a great decision to make for a healthier lifestyle. While doing so isn’t always easy, the benefits are worth it, as added sugar has been proven to have negative effects on your body….

Cutting added sugar isn’t about dieting and deprivation, and you don’t have to count calories or cut fat. In fact, when you stop eating foods with added sugar, you’ll replace them with foods that taste even better…..

Too many calories, no matter where they’re from, will cause weight gain. But lots of added sugar in your diet could make you more likely to eat too much over the course of the day. Replace some of those empty calories with whole foods and you’ll feel fuller sooner and be less likely to overeat….

*This program will be delivered to you by instant download as interactive eBook and audio program.

First, you will learn how the food industry secretly tries to lure you into consuming junk food, so you always come back for more. Learn all about how not to fall into their traps. Know what to do to escape the clutches of sugar dealers!

This program will give you the inner strength you always needed to beat your sugar cravings and junk food impulses. You will learn the “Seven Maxims” crucial to overcoming sugar addiction and you’ll get the “Five-Step Blueprint” to keep you narrow and straight in your weight loss process!

Learn how to build your new daily routine and fill out the emptiness that kicked out sugar leaves. Following this program will help you lose weight fast, prevent yo-yoing, stabilize hormonal balance, and get back on track to leading a healthy life – all while never being hungry or having to go to the gym!

A new happy you or your money back! Have almost two whole months to test it out for yourself. If your body does not respond to the methods from this system, you have the full right to get your money back up to 60 days. This guarantee is supported by Clickbank®. So there you have it. Put that cookie down and take the first step of a healthier you, right now!

You must give yourself at least eight weeks to form new habits. It may seem toughest the first few days, but after a week and then another week and then a month, it will start to seem like second nature. This 60-Day Habit Tracker is here to help you stay on the right track. So print it out, put it on the fridge and check it every day to keep encouraging yourself and follow your progress to see that you have made the right decisions for a healthier and happier life.

All materials are DIGITAL and sent to you instantly in eBook or Audio format. Any Computer can use it! That means you can start TODAY!

Upon purchase, you will be redirected to a customers’ only area offering access to all content of the “Let’s Quit Sugar” system.

You will receive three full programs and one free gift:

This system aims to help you remove added sugar from your diet and make it easier for you to cope with cravings. Eliminating added sugar from your food will undoubtedly help you lose weight. Your hunger levels will oscillate less, your appetite will stabilize, but total effects and weight loss speed will depend on your calorie intake and calorie spending as well.

Although made to be simple and user-friendly, providing clear instructions based on sound scientific evidence, some readers only skim through the text once, not implementing the program or taking the advised steps to help control their sugar addiction. Don’t be one of them. If you would like to achieve the best results possible, you will need to follow the strategies described in the Let’s Quit Sugar system. Most users find that they will experience immediate results, but it takes at least 90 days of continuous use to achieve long-lasting results.

At this moment, Let’s Quit Sugar is sold only in digital form. This allows it to be immediately available and interactive. While going through Let’s Quit Sugar programs you will find links to a range of tools especially built for you on this site. These features would not be possible with paper edition.

No, the Let’s Quit Sugar is not a recipe book.

However, the system will tell you in detail which foods have the hidden sugars inside them, and it will give you clear directions on how to pick the right foods. This system aims to help you cope with uncontrolled appetite, sugar, and junk food cravings in the first place while giving you clear directions about their healthy alternatives.

Upon purchase, you may request a full refund within the first 60 days – no questions asked – as guaranteed by Clickbank®, our payment service provider. Your purchase is 100% risk free.

Quit sugar in 60 days, or get your money back!

No. Exercising is not a direct requirement for the Let’s Quit Sugar system to work because it focuses on changing your eating habits. When applied, it acts as a healthy regulatory diet that will remove you from unhealthy foods that make us fat. However, including a simple workout in your daily routine, even only the occasional walk, will significantly speed up your weight loss and improve your overall health.

This is strictly a one payment offer with no hidden charges.  You will NEVER be charged for anything without your permission. We hate when companies do that as much as you do!

DISCLAIMER: Cory Kelby is a pen name and brand name of letsquitsugar.com. The information provided on this site is for informational purposes only and is not intended as a substitute for advice from your physician or other healthcare professional. You should not use the information on this site for diagnosis or treatment of any health problem or for prescription of any medication or other treatment. You should consult with a healthcare professional before starting any diet, exercise or supplementation program, before taking any medication, or if you have or suspect you might have a health problem.

ClickBank is the retailer of products on this site. CLICKBANK® is a registered trademark of Click Sales, Inc., a Delaware corporation located at 917 S. Lusk Street, Suite 200, Boise Idaho, 83706, USA and used by permission. ClickBank’s role as retailer does not constitute an endorsement, approval or review of these products or any claim, statement or opinion used in promotion of these products.

Testimonials are not necessarily representative of all of those who will use our products. Some of our testimonials are provided by customers who have received promotional offers in exchange for their participation. The testimonials displayed are given verbatim except for correction of grammatical or typing errors. Some have been shortened, meaning; not the whole message received by the testimony writer is displayed, when it seemed lengthy or the testimony in its entirety seemed irrelevant for the general public. As individuals differ, so will results.

Any reference to any media identity, network, or publication mentioning sugar addiction is not meant to denote or in any way imply an endorsement by the said parties of the products presented in this advertisement.

Copyright © 2020 Lets’ Quit Sugar. All Rights Reserved.

Akhavan T1, Anderson GH. Effects of glucose-to-fructose ratios in solutions on subjective satiety, food intake, and satiety hormones in young men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;86(5):1354- 63. DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/86.5.1354

Akram M, Hamid A. Mini review on fructose metabolism. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2013 Mar-Apr;7(2):e89-e94. DOI: 10.1016/j. orcp.2012.11.002.

Alexander BK, Beyerstein BL, Hadaway PF, Coambs RB. Effects of early and later colony housing on oral ingestion of morphine in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1981 Oct;15(4):571-6. PMID: 7291261

Alexander BK, Coambs RB, Hadaway PF. The effect of housing and gender on morphine self-administration in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1978 Jul 6;58(2):175-9. PMID: 98787

Alisi A, Manco M, Pezzullo M, Nobili V. Fructose at the center of necroinflammation and fibrosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology. 2011;53(1):372–3 DOI: 10.1002/hep.23873

Almiron-Roig E, Tsiountsioura M, Lewis HB, Wu J, Solis-Trapala I, Jebb SA. Large portion sizes increase bite size and eating rate in overweight women. Physiol Behav. 2015 Feb;139:297- 302. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.11.041. 

Álvarez-Castro P, Pena L, Cordido F. Ghrelin in obesity, physiological and pharmacological considerations. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013 Apr;13(4):541-52. PMID: 22931534

American Diabetes Association statement on sweeteners. J Am Diet Assoc. 1980 Jun;76(6):549. PMID: 7400482

Anania FA. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and fructose: bad for us, better for mice. J Hepatol. 2011;55(1):218–20 DOI: 10.1016/j.jhep.2011.01.029

Andrade LJ, Melo PR, Paraná R, Daltro C. Grading scale of visceral adipose tissue thickness and their relation to the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Arq Gastroenterol. 2014 AprJun;51(2):118-22. PMID: 25003263

Angelopoulos TJ, Lowndes J, Sinnett S, Rippe JM. Fructose Containing Sugars at Normal Levels of Consumption Do Not Effect Adversely Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease. Nutrients. 2016;8(4):179. DOI: 10.3390/nu8040179.

Angelopoulos TJ, Lowndes J, Zukley L, Melanson KJ, Nguyen V, Huffman A, Rippe JM. The effect of high-fructose corn syrup consumption on triglycerides and uric acid. J Nutr. 2009 Jun;139(6):1242S-1245S. DOI: 10.3945/jn.108.098194.

Arai T. Radioactive cesium accumulation in freshwater fishes after the Fukushima nuclear accident. SpringerPlus. 2014;3:479. DOI: 10.1186/2193-1801-3-479.

Araújo JR, Martel F, Keating E. Exposure to non-nutritive sweeteners during pregnancy and lactation: Impact in programming of metabolic diseases in the progeny later in life. Reprod Toxicol. 2014 Nov;49:196-201. DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2014.09.007.

Arcidiacono B, Iiritano S, Nocera A, et al. Insulin Resistance and Cancer Risk: An Overview of the Pathogenetic Mechanisms. Experimental Diabetes Research. 2012;2012:789174. DOI: 10.1155/2012/789174.

Ardalan MR, Tabibi H, Ebrahimzadeh Attari V, Malek Mahdavi A. Nephrotoxic Effect of Aspartame as an Artificial Sweetener: a Brief Review. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2017 Oct;11(5):339-343. PMID: 29038387

Ares GR, Ortiz PA. Direct renal effects of a fructose-enriched diet: interaction with high salt intake. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2015;309(9):R1078-R1081. DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.00156.2015.

Armstrong BK. Saccharin/cyclamates: epidemiological evidence. IARC Sci Publ. 1985;(65):129-43. PMID: 2417949

Arnold DL. Toxicology of saccharin. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1984 Oct;4(5):674-85. PMID: 6391996

Aschbacher K, Kornfeld S, Picard M, et al. Chronic Stress Increases Vulnerability to Diet-Related Abdominal Fat, Oxidative Stress, and Metabolic Risk. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;46:14-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.04.003.

Avena NM, Bocarsly ME, Hoebel BG. Animal models of sugar and fat bingeing: relationship to food addiction and increased body weight. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;829:351-65. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-61779-458-2_23.

Avena NM, Bocarsly ME, Rada P, Kim A, Hoebel BG. After daily bingeing on a sucrose solution, food deprivation induces anxiety and accumbens dopamine/acetylcholine imbalance. Physiology & behavior. 2008;94(3):309-315. DOI: 10.1016/j. physbeh.2008.01.008.

Avena NM, Potenza MN, Gold MS. Why are we consuming so much sugar despite knowing too much can harm us? JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Jan;175(1):145-6. DOI: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.6968.

Avena NM, Rada P, Hoebel BG. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews. 2008;32(1):20-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.04.019

AVENA NM. Binge Eating: Neurochemical Insights from Animal Models. Eating disorders. 2009;17(1):89-92. DOI: 10.1080/10640260802371604.

Avena NM. Examining the addictive-like properties of binge eating using an animal model of sugar dependence. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007 Oct;15(5):481-91. DOI: 10.1037/1064- 1297.15.5.481

Bantle JP. Dietary Fructose and Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes. The Journal of Nutrition. 2009;139(6):1263S-1268S. DOI: 10.3945/jn.108.098020.

Basaranoglu M, Basaranoglu G, Sabuncu T, Sentürk H. Fructose as a key player in the development of fatty liver disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG. 2013;19(8):1166-1172. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i8.1166.

Basu S, Yoffe P, Hills N, Lustig RH. The Relationship of Sugar to Population-Level Diabetes Prevalence: An Econometric Analysis of Repeated Cross-Sectional Data. Wagner B, ed. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(2):e57873. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057873.

Beauchamp GK. Why do we like sweet taste: A bitter tale? Physiol Behav. 2016;164(Pt B):432-437. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.05.007.

Belloir C, Neiers F, Briand L. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2017 Jul;20(4):279- 285. DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000377.

Benton D. Portion Size: What We Know and What We Need to Know. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2015;55(7):988-1004. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2012.679980.

Berryman CE, Preston AG, Karmally W, Deckelbaum RJ, Kris-Etherton PM. Effects of almond consumption on the reduction of LDL-cholesterol: a discussion of potential mechanisms and future research directions. Nutr Rev. 2011 Apr;69(4):171-85. DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00383.x.

Bhavsar N, St-Onge MP. The diverse nature of saturated fats and the case of medium-chain triglycerides: how one recommendation may not fit all. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2016 Mar;19(2):81-7. DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000249.

Borén J, Taskinen MR, Olofsson SO, Levin M. Ectopic lipid storage and insulin resistance: a harmful relationship. J Intern Med. 2013 Jul;274(1):25-40. DOI: 10.1111/joim.12071.

Bozarth MA, Murray A, Wise RA. Influence of housing conditions on the acquisition of intravenous heroin and cocaine self-administration in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1989 Aug;33(4):903-7. PMID: 2616610

Bray GA, York B, DeLany J. A survey of the opinions of obesity experts on the causes and treatment of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55(1):151S–154S. PMID: 1728825

Bray N. Obesity: Reversing resistance to leptin in obesity. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2015 Jul;14(7):458-9. DOI: 10.1038/nrd4671.

Bremer AA, Lustig RH. Effects of sugar-sweetened beverages on children. Pediatr Ann. 2012 Jan;41(1):26-30. DOI: 10.3928/00904481-20111209-09.

Bremer AA, Mietus-Snyder M, Lustig RH. Toward a Unifying Hypothesis of Metabolic Syndrome. Pediatrics. 2012;129(3):557- 570. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-2912.

Bril F, Lomonaco R, Orsak B, Ortiz-Lopez C, Webb A, Tio F, Hecht J, Cusi K. Relationship between disease severity, hyperinsulinemia, and impaired insulin clearance in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Hepatology. 2014 Jun;59(6):2178-87. DOI: 10.1002/hep.26988.

Brink PJ. Addiction to sugar. West J Nurs Res. 1993 Jun;15(3):280-1. DOI: 10.1177/019394599301500301 Brown RE, Kuk JL, Libman I, Rivera-Vega M, Lee S. Associations between visceral fat and liver fat with insulin sensitivity and metabolic risk in obese adolescents. Biochem Cell Biol. 2015 Oct;93(5):466-71. DOI: 10.1139/bcb-2014-0064.

Brownell KD, Pomeranz JL. The trans-fat ban–food regulation and long-term health. N Engl J Med. 2014 May 8;370(19):1773-5. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1314072. Brunt EM, Wong VW, Nobili V, Day CP, Sookoian S, Maher JJ, Bugianesi E, Sirlin CB, Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Rinella ME. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015 Dec 17;1:15080. DOI: 10.1038/nrdp.2015.80.

Bryan GT, Ertürk E. Production of mouse urinary bladder carcinomas by sodium cyclamate. Science. 1970 Feb 13;167(3920):996-8. PMID: 5411183

Bryan GT, Yoshida O. Artificial sweeteners as urinary bladder carcinogens. Arch Environ Health. 1971 Jul;23(1):6-12. PMID: 4996434

Buesseler KO, Jayne SR, Fisher NS, et al. Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the ocean and biota off Japan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2012;109(16):5984-5988. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1120794109.

Cardoso FS, Araujo-Lima CF, Aiub CA, Felzenszwalb I. Exposure to sorbitol during lactation causes metabolic alterations and genotoxic effects in rat offspring. Toxicol Lett. 2016;260:36-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2016.08.018.

Carey DG. Quantifying differences in the “fat burning” zone and the aerobic zone: implications for training. J Strength Cond Res. 2009 Oct;23(7):2090-5. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181bac5c5.

Chambers AP, Sandoval DA, Seeley RJ. “Central nervous system integration of satiety signals.” Current biology : CB. 2013;23(9):R379-R388. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.03.020.

Chauvet C, Lardeux V, Goldberg SR, Jaber M, Solinas M. Environmental enrichment reduces cocaine seeking and reinstatement induced by cues and stress but not by cocaine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Dec;34(13):2767-78. DOI: 10.1038/ npp.2009.127.

Chettouh H, Lequoy M, Fartoux L, Vigouroux C, Desbois-Mouthon C. Hyperinsulinaemia and insulin signalling in the pathogenesis and the clinical course of hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver Int. 2015 Oct;35(10):2203-17. DOI: 10.1111/liv.12903.

Cho S, Tripathi A, Chlipala G, Green S, Lee H, Chang EB, Jeong H. Fructose diet alleviates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. PLoS One. 2017;12(8):e0182977. DOI: 10.1371/

Cho S, Tripathi A, Chlipala G, Green S, Lee H, Chang EB, Jeong H. Fructose diet alleviates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. PLoS One. 2017;12(8):e0182977. DOI: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0182977.

Choudhary AK, Pretorius E. Revisiting the safety of aspartame. Nutr Rev. 2017 Sep 1;75(9):718-730. DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/ nux035.

Colantuoni C, Rada P, McCarthy J, Patten C, Avena NM, Chadeayne A, Hoebel BG. Evidence that intermittent, excessive sugar intake causes endogenous opioid dependence. Obes Res. 2002 Jun;10(6):478-88. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2002.66 

Colantuoni C, Schwenker J, McCarthy J, Rada P, Ladenheim B, Cadet JL, Schwartz GJ, Moran TH, Hoebel BG. Excessive sugar intake alters binding to dopamine and mu-opioid receptors in the brain. Neuroreport. 2001 Nov 16;12(16):3549-52. PMID: 11733709 

Cone JJ, McCutcheon JE, Roitman MF. Ghrelin Acts as an Interface between Physiological State and Phasic Dopamine Signaling. The Journal of Neuroscience. 2014;34(14):4905-4913. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4404-13.2014. 

Cook JR, Langlet F, Kido Y, Accili D. Pathogenesis of Selective Insulin Resistance in Isolated Hepatocytes. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2015;290(22):13972-13980. DOI: 10.1074/ jbc.M115.638197. 

Cotter EW, Kelly NR. Stress-related eating, mindfulness, and obesity. Health Psychol. 2018 DOI: 10.1037/hea0000614 

Coulombe RA Jr, Sharma RP. Neurobiochemical alterations induced by the artificial sweetener aspartame (NutraSweet). Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1986 Mar 30;83(1):79-85. PMID: 2420032 

Cowin RL, Avena NM, Boggiano MM. Feeding and reward: Perspectives from Three Rat Models of Binge Eating. Physiology & behavior. 2011;104(1):87-97. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.04.041. 

Crujeiras AB, Carreira MC, Cabia B, Andrade S, Amil M, Casanueva FF. Leptin resistance in obesity: An epigenetic landscape. Life Sci. 2015 Nov 1;140:57-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.lfs.2015.05.003. 

Daubenmier J, Kristeller J, Hecht FM, et al. Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study. Journal of Obesity. 2011;2011:651936. DOI: 10.1155/2011/651936. 

Daubenmier J, Moran PJ, Kristeller J, et al. Effects of a mindfulness‐based weight loss intervention in adults with obesity: A randomized clinical trial. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md). 2016;24(4):794-804. DOI: 10.1002/oby.21396. 

De Araujo IE. Circuit Organization of Sugar Reinforcement. Physiology & behavior. 2016;164(Pt B):473-477. DOI: 10.1016/j. physbeh.2016.04.041. 

De Felice FG, Lourenco MV, Ferreira ST. How does brain insulin resistance develop in Alzheimer’s disease? Alzheimers Dement. 2014 Feb;10(1 Suppl):S26-32. DOI: 10.1016/j. jalz.2013.12.004. 

De Koning L, Malik VS, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2011;93(6):1321-1327. DOI: 10.3945/ ajcn.110.007922. 

De Souza RJ, Mente A, Maroleanu A, et al. Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. The BMJ. 2015;351:h3978. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.h3978. 

Dhillon KK, Gupta S. Biochemistry, Ketogenesis. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Dunaif A. Insulin Resistance and the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Revisited: An Update on Mechanisms and Implications. Endocrine Reviews. 2012;33(6):981- 1030. DOI: 10.1210/er.2011-1034. 

Dimitrijević I, Popović N, Sabljak V, Škodrić-Trifunović V, Dimitrijević N. Food addiction-diagnosis and treatment. Psychiatr Danub. 2015 Mar;27(1):101-6. PMID: 25751444 

Dineley KT, Jahrling JB, Denner L. Insulin Resistance in Alzheimer’s Disease. Neurobiology of disease. 2014;72PA:92-103. DOI: 10.1016/j.nbd.2014.09.001. 

DiNicolantonio JJ, O’Keefe JH, Lucan SC. Added fructose: a principal driver of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its consequences. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015 Mar;90(3):372-81. DOI: 10.1016/j. mayocp.2014.12.019. 

DiNicolantonio JJ, O’Keefe JH, Wilson WL. Sugar addiction: is it real? A narrative review. Br J Sports Med. 2017 Aug 23. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2017-097971. 

Dubowitz T, Ghosh-Dastidar M, Cohen DA, et al. Changes in Diet after Introduction of a Full Service Supermarket in a Food Desert. Health affairs (Project Hope). 2015;34(11):1858-1868. DOI: 10.1377/hlthaff.2015.0667. 

Dubowitz T, Zenk SN, Ghosh-Dastidar B, et al. Healthy food access for urban food desert residents: examination of the food environment, food purchasing practices, diet, and body mass index. Public health nutrition. 2015;18(12):2220-2230. DOI: 10.1017/S1368980014002742. 

Faria G, Gonçalves A, Cunha R, Guimarães JT, Calhau C, Preto J, Taveira-Gomes A. Beyond central adiposity: liver fat and visceral fat area are associated with metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese patients. Int J Surg. 2015 Feb;14:75-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.12.028. 

Farr OM, Gavrieli A, Mantzoros CS. Leptin applications in 2015: What have we learned about leptin and obesity? Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity. 2015;22(5):353- 359. DOI: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000184. 

Feinle-Bisset C. Modulation of hunger and satiety: hormones and diet. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2014 Sep;17(5):458- 64. DOI: 10.1097/MCO.0000000000000078. 

Ferder L, Ferder MD, Inserra F. The role of high-fructose corn syrup in metabolic syndrome and hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2010 Apr;12(2):105-12. DOI: 10.1007/s11906-010- 0097-3. 

Field BC. Neuroendocrinology of obesity. Br Med Bull. 2014;109:73-82. DOI: 10.1093/bmb/ldu001. 

Flier JS. Hormone Resistance in Diabetes and Obesity: Insulin, Leptin, and FGF21. The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 2012;85(3):405-414. PMID: 23012588 

Fortuna JL. The obesity epidemic and food addiction: clinical similarities to drug dependence. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2012 JanMar;44(1):56-63. DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2012.662092 

Franckowiak SC, Dobrosielski DA, Reilley SM, Walston JD, Andersen RE. Maximal Heart Rate Prediction in Adults that are Overweight or Obese. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association. 2011;25(5):1407-1412. DOI: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d682d2. 

Fuller D, Engler-Stringer R, Muhajarine N. Examining food purchasing patterns from sales data at a full-service grocery store intervention in a former food desert. Preventive Medicine Reports. 2015;2:164-169. DOI: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.02.012. 

Gandhi N, Tang RW, Bhavsar SP, Arhonditsis GB. Fish mercury levels appear to be increasing lately: a report from 40 years of monitoring in the province of Ontario, Canada. Environ Sci Technol. 2014 May 20;48(10):5404-14. DOI: 10.1021/es403651x. 

Ganguly R, Pierce GN. The toxicity of dietary trans fats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Apr;78:170-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.02.004. 

Ganguly R, Pierce GN. The toxicity of dietary trans fats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Apr;78:170-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2015.02.004. 

Gangwisch JE, Hale L, Garcia L, et al. High glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: analyses from the Women’s Health Initiative. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015;102(2):454-463. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.114.103846. 

Garber AK, Lustig RH. Is fast food addictive? Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2011 Sep;4(3):146-62. PMID: 21999689 

García-Cáceres C, Tschöp MH. The emerging neurobiology of calorie addiction. eLife. 2014;3:e01928. DOI: 10.7554/ eLife.01928. 

Garshick M, Mochari-Greenberger H, Mosca L. Reduction in Dietary Trans Fat Intake is Associated with Decreased LDL Particle Number in a Primary Prevention Population. Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases : NMCD. 2014;24(1):100- 106. DOI: 10.1016/j.numecd.2013.06.003. 

Gearhardt AN, Corbin WR, Brownell KD. Preliminary validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Appetite. 2009 Apr;52(2):430-6. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2008.12.003. 

Gkogkolou P, Böhm M. Advanced glycation end products: Key players in skin aging? Dermato-endocrinology. 2012;4(3):259- 270. DOI: 10.4161/derm.22028. 

Glendinning JI. Do low-calorie sweeteners promote weight gain in rodents? Physiology & Behavior, 2016;164(Pt B):509-513, DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.01.043. 

Gold MS, Avena NM. Animal Models Lead the Way to Further Understanding Food Addiction as Well as Providing Evidence That Drugs Used Successfully in Addictions can be Successful in Treating Overeating. Biological psychiatry. 2013;74(7):e11. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.04.022. 

Golomb BA, Bui AK. A Fat to Forget: Trans Fat Consumption and Memory. Langmann T, ed. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(6):e0128129. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128129. 

Greenwood D, Threapleton D, Evans C, Cleghorn C, Nykjaer C, Woodhead C, Burley V. Association between sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened soft drinks and type 2 diabetes: Systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies. British Journal of Nutrition, 2014;112(5):725-734. DOI: 10.1017/S0007114514001329 

Grembecka M. Natural sweeteners in a human diet. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2015;66(3):195-202. PMID: 26400114 

Gugliucci A. Formation of Fructose-Mediated Advanced Glycation End Products and Their Roles in Metabolic and Inflammatory Diseases. Advances in Nutrition. 2017;8(1):54-62. DOI: 10.3945/an.116.013912. 

Guo X, Park Y, Freedman ND, et al. Sweetened Beverages, Coffee, and Tea and Depression Risk among Older US Adults. Matsuoka Y, ed. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(4):e94715. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094715. 

Ha V, Jayalath VH, Cozma AI, Mirrahimi A, de Souza RJ, Sievenpiper JL. Fructose-containing sugars, blood pressure, and cardiometabolic risk: a critical review. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2013 Aug;15(4):281-97. DOI: 10.1007/s11906-013-0364-1. 

Hackbart KS, Cunha PM, Meyer RK, Wiltbank MC. Effect of Glucocorticoid-Induced Insulin Resistance on Follicle Development and Ovulation. Biology of Reproduction. 2013;88(6):153. DOI: 10.1095/biolreprod.113.107862. 

Hadad NA, Knackstedt LA. Addicted to Palatable Foods: Comparing the Neurobiology of Bulimia Nervosa to that of Drug Addiction. Psychopharmacology. 2014;231(9):1897-1912. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-014-3461-1. 

Hamel C, Stevens A, Singh K, et al. Do sugar-sweetened beverages cause adverse health outcomes in adults? A systematic review protocol. Systematic Reviews. 2014;3:108. DOI: 10.1186/2046-4053-3-108. 

Han H-S, Kang G, Kim JS, Choi BH, Koo S-H. Regulation of glucose metabolism from a liver-centric perspective. Experimental & Molecular Medicine. 2016;48(3):e218-. DOI: 10.1038/ emm.2015.122. 

Harington K, Smeele R, Van Loon F, Yuan J, Haszard JJ, Drewer A, Venn BJ. Desire for Sweet Taste Unchanged After Eating: Evidence of a Dessert Mentality? J Am Coll Nutr. 2016 Aug;35(6):581-586. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2015.1117956 

Hasin DS, O’Brien CP, Auriacombe M, et al. DSM-5 Criteria for Substance Use Disorders: Recommendations and Rationale. The American journal of psychiatry. 2013;170(8):834-851. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.12060782. 

Hellström PM. Satiety signals and obesity. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar;29(2):222-7. DOI: 10.1097/ MOG.0b013e32835d9ff8. 

Hicks RM, Wakefield J, Chowaniec J. Evaluation of a new model to detect bladder carcinogens or co-carcinogens; results obtained with saccharin, cyclamate and cyclophosphamide. Chem Biol Interact. 1975 Sep;11(3):225-33. PMID: 1157191 

Hoebel BG, Avena NM, Bocarsly ME, Rada P. A Behavioral and Circuit Model Based on Sugar Addiction in Rats. Journal of addiction medicine. 2009;3(1):33-41. DOI: 10.1097/ ADM.0b013e31819aa621. 

Holmstrup M, Fairchild T, Keslacy S, Weinstock R, Kanaley J. Satiety, but not total PYY, is increased with continuous and intermittent exercise. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md). 2013;21(10):2014- 2020. DOI: 10.1002/oby.20335. 

Howe GR, Burch JD, Miller AB, Morrison B, Gordon P, Weldon L, Chambers LW, Fodor G, Winsor GM. Artificial sweeteners and human bladder cancer. Lancet. 1977 Sep 17;2(8038):578-81. PMID: 71398 

Howe GR, Burch JD. Artificial sweeteners in relation to the epidemiology of bladder cancer. Nutr Cancer. 1981;2(4):213-6. DOI: 10.1080/01635588109513685 

Huang D, Dhawan T, Young S, et al. Fructose impairs glucose-induced hepatic triglyceride synthesis. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10:20 DOI: 10.1186/1476-511X-10-20 

Huff J, LaDou J. Aspartame bioassay findings portend human cancer hazards. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2007 OctDec;13(4):446-8. DOI: 10.1179/oeh.2007.13.4.446 

Ifland JR, Preuss HG, Marcus MT, Rourke KM, Taylor WC, Burau K, Jacobs WS, Kadish W, Manso G. Refined food addiction: a classic substance use disorder. Med Hypotheses. 2009 May;72(5):518-26. DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.11.035. 

Imamura F, O’Connor L, Ye Z, et al. Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, artificially sweetened beverages, and fruit juice and incidence of type 2 diabetes: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimation of population attributable fraction. The BMJ. 2015;351:h3576. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.h3576. 

Isganaitis E, Lustig RH. Fast food, central nervous system insulin resistance, and obesity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Dec;25(12):2451-62. DOI: 10.1161/01.ATV.0000186208.06964.91 

James MO, Kleinow KM. SEASONAL INFLUENCES ON PCB RETENTION AND BIOTRANSFORMATION IN FISH. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2014;21(10):6324- 6333. DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1611-3. 

Jayalath VH, Sievenpiper JL, de Souza RJ, et al. Total Fructose Intake and Risk of Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohorts. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2014;33(4):328-339. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2014.916237. 

Jensen T, Abdelmalek MF, Sullivan S, et al. Fructose and Sugar: A Major Mediator of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Journal of hepatology. 2018;68(5):1063-1075. DOI: 10.1016/j. jhep.2018.01.019. 

Johnson RJ, Murray R. Fructose, exercise, and health. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2010 Jul-Aug;9(4):253-8. DOI: 10.1249/ JSR.0b013e3181e7def4. 

Johnson RK, Appel LJ, Brands M, Howard BV, Lefevre M, Lustig RH, Sacks F, Steffen LM, Wylie-Rosett J; American Heart Association Nutrition Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism and the Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2009 Sep 15;120(11):1011-20. DOI: 10.1161/ CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192627 

Kalon E, Hong JY, Tobin C, Schulte T. Psychological and Neurobiological Correlates of Food Addiction. International review of neurobiology. 2016;129:85-110. DOI: 10.1016/bs.irn.2016.06.003. 

Kanaley JA, Shadid S, Sheehan MT, Guo Z, Jensen MD. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2013;305(4):E540-E548. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00143.2013. 

Kawada T. Liver fat, visceral fat and metabolic syndrome in patients with severe obesity. Int J Surg. 2015 Oct;22:153. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.09.001 

Kim Y, Chang H. Correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and sugar consumption, quality of diet, and dietary behavior in school children. Nutrition Research and Practice. 2011;5(3):236-245. DOI: 10.4162/nrp.2011.5.3.236. 

Kim Y, Kim S, Kim C, Sato T, Kojima M, Park S. Ghrelin is required for dietary restriction-induced enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis: lessons from ghrelin knockout mice. Endocr J. 2015;62(3):269-75. DOI: 10.1507/endocrj.EJ14-0436. 

Klein AV, Kiat H. The mechanisms underlying fructose-induced hypertension: a review. Journal of Hypertension. 2015;33(5):912-920. DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000000551. 

Kleinridders A, Cai W, Cappellucci L, et al. Insulin resistance in brain alters dopamine turnover and causes behavioral disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2015;112(11):3463-3468. DOI: 10.1073/ pnas.1500877112. 

Ko K, Woo J, Bae JY, Roh HT, Lee YH, Shin KO. Exercise training improves intramuscular triglyceride lipolysis sensitivity in high-fat diet induced obese mice. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2018;17:81. DOI: 10.1186/s12944-018-0730-8. 

Kumari R, Thappa DM. Role of insulin resistance and diet in acne. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2013 MayJun;79(3):291-9. DOI: 10.4103/0378-6323.110753. 

Laughlin MR, Bantle JP, Havel PJ, et al. Clinical Research Strategies for Fructose Metabolism. Advances in Nutrition. 2014;5(3):248-259. DOI: 10.3945/an.113.005249. 

Laughlin MR. Normal roles for dietary fructose in carbohydrate metabolism. Nutrients. 2014 Aug 5;6(8):3117-29. DOI: 10.3390/nu6083117. 

Lee J, Chung D-S, Kang J-H, Yu B-Y. Comparison of Visceral Fat and Liver Fat as Risk Factors of Metabolic Syndrome. Journal of Korean Medical Science. 2012;27(2):184-189. DOI: 10.3346/ jkms.2012.27.2.184. 

Lenhart A, Chey WD. A Systematic Review of the Effects of Polyols on Gastrointestinal Health and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Adv Nutr. 2017 Jul 14;8(4):587-596. DOI: 10.3945/ an.117.015560. 

Lenoir M, Serre F, Cantin L, Ahmed SH. Intense Sweetness Surpasses Cocaine Reward. Baune B, ed. PLoS ONE. 2007;2(8):e698. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000698. 

Lenoir M, Serre F, Cantin L, Ahmed SH. Intense Sweetness Surpasses Cocaine Reward. PLOS ONE 2007;2(8):e698. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000698 

Li S, Brown MS, Goldstein JL. Bifurcation of insulin signaling pathway in rat liver: mTORC1 required for stimulation of lipogenesis, but not inhibition of gluconeogenesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2010;107(8):3441-3446. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0914798107. 

Lim JS, Mietus-Snyder M, Valente A, Schwarz JM, Lustig RH. The role of fructose in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;7(5):251– 64 DOI: 10.1038/nrgastro.2010.41 

Lim JS, Mietus-Snyder M, Valente A, Schwarz JM, Lustig RH. The role of fructose in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and the metabolic syndrome. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 May;7(5):251-64. DOI: 10.1038/nrgastro.2010.41. 

Linder K, Springer F, Machann J, Schick F, Fritsche A, Häring HU, Blumenstock G, Ranke MB, Stefan N, Binder G, Ehehalt S. Relationships of body composition and liver fat content with insulin resistance in obesity-matched adolescents and adults. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 May;22(5):1325-31. DOI: 10.1002/ oby.20685. 

Liu H, Heaney AP. Refined fructose and cancer. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2011 Sep;15(9):1049-59. DOI: 10.1517/14728222.2011.588208. 

Lockie SH, Dinan T, Lawrence AJ, Spencer SJ, Andrews ZB. Diet-induced obesity causes ghrelin resistance in reward processing tasks. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Dec;62:114-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.08.004. 

Lustig RH, Mulligan K, Noworolski SM, et al. Isocaloric fructose restriction and metabolic improvement in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md). 2016;24(2):453-460. DOI: 10.1002/oby.21371. 

Lustig RH, Schmidt LA, Brindis CD. Public health: The toxic truth about sugar. Nature. 2012 Feb 1;482(7383):27-9. DOI: 10.1038/482027a. 

Lustig RH, Sen S, Soberman JE, Velasquez-Mieyer PA. Obesity, leptin resistance, and the effects of insulin reduction. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Oct;28(10):1344-8. DOI: 10.1038/ sj.ijo.0802753 

Lustig RH. A conversation with Robert H. Lustig, MD, MSL. Interview by Stanford T Shulman. Pediatr Ann. 2013 Jul;42(7):296. DOI: 10.3928/00904481-20130619-15. 

Lustig RH. Fructose and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease J Calif Dent Assoc. 2016 Oct 13;44(10):613-17. PMID: 29035477 

Lustig RH. Fructose: It’s “Alcohol Without the Buzz.” Advances in Nutrition. 2013;4(2):226-235. DOI: 10.3945/ an.112.002998. 

Lustig RH. Fructose: metabolic, hedonic, and societal parallels with ethanol. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Sep;110(9):1307-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2010.06.008. 

Lustig RH. Fructose: metabolic, hedonic, and societal parallels with ethanol. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010 Sep;110(9):1307-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2010.06.008. 

Lustig RH. Sickeningly Sweet: Does Sugar Cause Type 2 Diabetes? Yes. Can J Diabetes. 2016 Aug;40(4):282-6. DOI: 10.1016/j. jcjd.2016.01.004. 

Lustig RH. The neuroendocrinology of obesity. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2001 Sep;30(3):765-85. PMID: 11571940 

Madsen HB, Ahmed SH. Drug versus sweet reward: greater attraction to and preference for sweet versus drug cues. Addict Biol. 2015 May;20(3):433-44. DOI: 10.1111/adb.12134. 

Malik VS, Hu FB. Fructose and Cardiometabolic Health: What the Evidence from Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Tells Us. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2015;66(14):1615-1624. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.08.025. 

Mason AE, Epel ES, Aschbacher K, et al. Reduced Reward-driven Eating Accounts for the Impact of a Mindfulness-Based Diet and Exercise Intervention on Weight Loss: Data from the SHINE Randomized Controlled Trial. Appetite. 2016;100:86-93. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.02.009. 

Mason AE, Laraia B, Daubenmier J, et al. Putting the brakes on the “drive to eat”: Pilot effects of naltrexone and reward based eating on food cravings among obese women. Eating behaviors. 2015;19:53-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2015.06.008. 

Mason AE, Lustig RH, Brown RR, et al. Acute responses to opioidergic blockade as a biomarker of hedonic eating among obese women enrolled in a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention trial. Appetite. 2015;91:311-320. DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2015.04.062. 

Matsunaga M, Ishii K, Ohtsubo Y, Noguchi Y, Ochi M, Yamasue H. Association between salivary serotonin and the social sharing of happiness. Hashimoto K, ed. PLoS ONE. 2017;12(7):e0180391. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180391. 

Matsunaga M, Kawamichi H, Umemura T, et al. Neural and Genetic Correlates of the Social Sharing of Happiness. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2017;11:718. DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00718. 

Meador JP. Tissue concentrations as the dose metric to assess potential toxic effects of metals in field-collected fish: Copper and cadmium. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2015 Jun;34(6):1309-19. DOI: 10.1002/etc.2910. 

Mert R, Alaş A, Bulut S, Ozcan MM. Determination of heavy metal contents in some freshwater fishes. Environ Monit Assess. 2014 Nov;186(11):8017-22. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-014-3984-2. 

Miklavčič A, Casetta A, Snoj Tratnik J, Mazej D, Krsnik M, Mariuz M, Sofianou K, Spirić Z, Barbone F, Horvat M. Mercury, arsenic and selenium exposure levels in relation to fish consumption in the Mediterranean area.Environ Res. 2013 Jan;120:7-17. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2012.08.010. 

Moghetti P. Insulin Resistance and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. Curr Pharm Des. 2016;22(36):5526-5534. PMID: 27510482 

Moore JB, Gunn PJ, Fielding BA. The Role of Dietary Sugars and De novo Lipogenesis in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Nutrients. 2014;6(12):5679-5703. DOI: 10.3390/nu6125679. 

Morgan D, Sizemore GM. Animal models of addiction: fat and sugar. Curr Pharm Des. 2011;17(12):1168-72. PMID: 21492084 

Morrison AB. Sugar substitutes. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1979;120(6):633-637. PMID: 436039 

Mui Y, Lee BY, Adam A, et al. Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores’ Food Supplier Networks. Kirk S, Mclsaac J-L, Penney T, eds. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015;12(12):15058-15074. DOI: 10.3390/ ijerph121214965. 

Murphy R, Thornley S, de Zoysa J, Stamp LK, Dalbeth N, Merriman TR. Sugar Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Adults with Gout or Type 2 Diabetes. PLoS One. 2015 May 15;10(5):e0125543. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125543. 

Murray S, Tulloch A, Criscitelli K, Avena NM. Recent Studies of the Effects of Sugars on Brain Systems Involved in Energy Balance and Reward: Relevance to Low Calorie Sweeteners. Physiology & behavior. 2016;164(Pt B):504-508. DOI: 10.1016/j. physbeh.2016.04.004. 

Naboush A, Hamdy O. Measuring visceral and hepatic fat in clinical practice and clinical research. Endocr Pract. 2013 JulAug;19(4):587-9. DOI: 10.4158/EP12331.OR. 

Nader J, Chauvet C, Rawas RE, Favot L, Jaber M, Thiriet N, Solinas M. Loss of environmental enrichment increases vulnerability to cocaine addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2012 Jun;37(7):1579-87. DOI: 10.1038/npp.2012.2. 

Naneix F, Darlot F, Coutureau E, Cador M. Long-lasting deficits in hedonic and nucleus accumbens reactivity to sweet rewards by sugar overconsumption during adolescence. Eur J Neurosci. 2016 Mar;43(5):671-80. DOI: 10.1111/ejn.13149. 

Naznin F, Toshinai K, Waise TMZ, et al. Diet-induced obesity causes peripheral and central ghrelin resistance by promoting inflammation. The Journal of Endocrinology. 2015;226(1):81-92. DOI: 10.1530/JOE-15-0139. 

Nettleton JE, Reimer RA, Shearer J. Reshaping the gut microbiota: Impact of low calorie sweeteners and the link to insulin resistance? Physiol Behav. 2016 Oct 1;164(Pt B):488-493. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.04.029. 

Newman JC, Verdin E. Ketone bodies as signaling metabolites. Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM. 2014;25(1):42- 52. DOI: 10.1016/j.tem.2013.09.002. 

Noureddin M, Rinella ME. Nonalcoholic Fatty liver disease, diabetes, obesity, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Clin Liver Dis. 2015 May;19(2):361-79. DOI: 10.1016/j.cld.2015.01.012. 

Nseir W, Nassar F, Assy N. Soft drinks consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG. 2010;16(21):2579-2588. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i21.2579 

Olmedo P, Pla A, Hernández AF, Barbier F, Ayouni L, Gil F. Determination of toxic elements (mercury, cadmium, lead, tin and arsenic) in fish and shellfish samples. Risk assessment for the consumers. Environ Int. 2013 Sep;59:63-72. DOI: 10.1016/j. envint.2013.05.005. 

Oosterveer MH, Schoonjans K. Hepatic glucose sensing and integrative pathways in the liver. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2014 Apr;71(8):1453-67. DOI: 10.1007/s00018-013-1505-z. 

Otero YF, Stafford JM, McGuinness OP. Pathway-selective Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Disease: The Importance of Nutrient Flux. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2014;289(30):20462-20469. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.R114.576355. 

Ouyang K, Nayak S, Lee Y, Kim E, Wu M, Tallarida CS, Rawls SM. Behavioral effects of Splenda, Equal and sucrose: Clues from planarians on sweeteners. Neurosci Lett. 2017 Jan 1;636:213- 217. DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2016.11.017. 

Page RM, Brewster A. Depiction of food as having drug-like properties in televised food advertisements directed at children: portrayals as pleasure enhancing and addictive. J Pediatr Health Care. 2009 May-Jun;23(3):150-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2008.01.006. 

Palmnäs MSA, Cowan TE, Bomhof MR, et al. Low-Dose Aspartame Consumption Differentially Affects Gut Microbiota-Host Metabolic Interactions in the Diet-Induced Obese Rat. Müller M, ed. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(10):e109841. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109841. 

Pan H, Guo J, Su Z. Advances in understanding the interrelations between leptin resistance and obesity. Physiol Behav. 2014 May 10;130:157-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.04.003 

Pandeya DR, Mittal A, Sathian B, Bhatta B. Role of hyperinsulinemia in increased risk of prostate cancer: a case control study from Kathmandu Valley. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(2):1031-3. PMID: 24568446 

Pandit R, Mercer JG, Overduin J, la Fleur SE, Adan RAH. Dietary Factors Affect Food Reward and Motivation to Eat. Obes Facts 2012;5:221-242 DOI: 10.1159/000338073 

Perito ER, Rodriguez LA, Lustig RH. Dietary treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2013 Mar;29(2):170-6. DOI: 10.1097/MOG.0b013e32835ca11d. 

Perito ER, Tsai PM, Hawley S, Lustig RH, Feldstein VA. Targeted hepatic sonography during clinic visits for detection of fatty liver in overweight children: a pilot study. J Ultrasound Med. 2013 Apr;32(4):637-43. PMID: 23525389 

Perkins JM, Joy NG, Tate DB, Davis SN. Acute effects of hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia on vascular inflammatory biomarkers and endothelial function in overweight and obese humans. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2015;309(2):E168-E176. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00064.2015. 

Petrie BF. Environment is not the most important variable in determining oral morphine consumption in Wistar rats. Psychol Rep. 1996 Apr;78(2):391-400. DOI: 10.2466/pr0.1996.78.2.391 

Pickard H, Ahmed SH, Foddy B. Alternative Models of Addiction. Lausanne, Frontiers Media 2015 DOI: 10.3389/978-2- 88919-713-2 

Pooranaperundevi M, Sumiyabanu MS, Viswanathan P, Sundarapandiyan R, Anuradha CV. Insulin resistance induced by high-fructose diet potentiates carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. Toxicol Ind Health. 2010;26(2):89-104 DOI: 10.1177/0748233709359273 

Pothos EN, Hernandez L, Hoebel BG. Chronic food deprivation decreases extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens: implications for a possible neurochemical link between weight loss and drug abuse. Obes Res. 1995 Nov;3 Suppl 4:525S-529S. PMID: 8697053 

Pratt WE, Schall MA, Choi E. Selective serotonin receptor stimulation of the medial nucleus accumbens differentially affects appetitive motivation for food on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Neuroscience Letters. 2012;511(2):84-88. DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.01.038. 

Price JM, Biava CG, Oser BL, Vogin EE, Steinfeld J, Ley HL. Bladder tumors in rats fed cyclohexylamine or high doses of a mixture of cyclamate and saccharin. Science. 1970 Feb 20;167(3921):1131-2. PMID: 5411626 

Privitera GJ, McGrath HK, Windus BA, Doraiswamy PM. Eat Now or Later: Self-Control as an Overlapping Cognitive Mechanism of Depression and Obesity. Chao L, ed. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(3):e0123136. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123136. 

Qian K, Zhong S, Xie K, Yu D, Yang R, Gong D-W. Hepatic ALT isoenzymes are elevated in gluconeogenic conditions including diabetes and suppressed by insulin at the protein level. Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. 2015;31(6):562-571. DOI: 10.1002/dmrr.2655. 

Rachek LI. Free fatty acids and skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2014;121:267-92. DOI: 10.1016/ B978-0-12-800101-1.00008-9. 

Rada P, Avena NM, Hoebel BG. Daily bingeing on sugar repeatedly releases dopamine in the accumbens shell. Neuroscience. 2005;134(3):737-44. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2005.04.043 

Raghavendra SN, Ramachandra SSR, Rastogi NK, Raghavarao KSMS, Kumar S, Tharanathan RN. Grinding characteristics and hydration properties of coconut residue: A source of dietary fiber. Journal of Food Engineering. 2006;72(3):281-286. Doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2004.12.008. 

Rebollo A, Roglans N, Alegret M, Laguna JC. Way back for fructose and liver metabolism: Bench side to molecular insights. World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG. 2012;18(45):6552- 6559. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i45.6552. 

Regnault TR, Gentili S, Sarr O, Toop CR, Sloboda DM. Fructose, pregnancy and later life impacts. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2013 Nov;40(11):824-37. DOI: 10.1111/1440-1681.12162. 

Rippe JM, Angelopoulos TJ. Sucrose, High-Fructose Corn Syrup, and Fructose, Their Metabolism and Potential Health Effects: What Do We Really Know? Advances in Nutrition. 2013;4(2):236-245. DOI: 10.3945/an.112.002824. 

Rippe JM, Saltzman E. Sweetened Beverages and Health: Current State of Scientific Understandings. Advances in Nutrition. 2013;4(5):527-529. DOI: 10.3945/an.113.004143. 

Rippere V. “A little something between meals”: masked addiction not low blood-sugar. Lancet. 1979 Jun 23;1(8130):1349. PMID: 87809 

Roberts A. The safety and regulatory process for low calorie sweeteners in the United States. Physiol Behav. 2016 Oct 1;164(Pt B):439-444. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2016.02.039. 

Roberts JR. The paradox of artificial sweeteners in managing obesity. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2015 Jan;17(1):423. DOI: 10.1007/s11894-014-0423-z. 

Robins LN, Davis DH, Goodwin DW. Drug use by U.S. Army enlisted men in Vietnam: a follow-up on their return home. Am J Epidemiol. 1974 Apr;99(4):235-49. PMID: 4818714 

Rohrbaugh M, Eads G, Press S. Effects of the Vietnam experience on subsequent drug use among servicemen. Int J Addict. 1974;9(1):25-40. PMID: 4413175 

Rosqvist F, Iggman D, Kullberg J, Cedernaes J, Johansson HE, Larsson A, Johansson L, Ahlström H, Arner P, Dahlman I, Risérus U. Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans. Diabetes. 2014 Jul;63(7):2356-68. DOI: 10.2337/db13-1622. 

Rowlands DS, Houltham S, Musa-Veloso K, Brown F, Paulionis L, Bailey D. Fructose-Glucose Composite Carbohydrates and Endurance Performance: Critical Review and Future Perspectives. Sports Med. 2015 Nov;45(11):1561-76. DOI: 10.1007/ s40279-015-0381-0. 

Sáinz N, Barrenetxe J, Moreno-Aliaga MJ, Martínez JA. Leptin resistance and diet-induced obesity: central and peripheral actions of leptin. Metabolism. 2015 Jan;64(1):35-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.metabol.2014.10.015. 

Sáinz N, González-Navarro CJ, Martínez JA, Moreno-Aliaga MJ. Leptin signaling as a therapeutic target of obesity. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2015 Jul;19(7):893-909. DOI: 10.1517/14728222.2015.1018824 

Schiavo L, Scalera G, Sergio R, De Sena G, Pilone V, Barbarisi A. Clinical impact of Mediterranean-enriched-protein diet on liver size, visceral fat, fat mass, and fat-free mass in patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2015 SepOct;11(5):1164-70. DOI: 10.1016/j.soard.2015.04.003 

Schulte EM, Avena NM, Gearhardt AN. Which Foods May Be Addictive? The Roles of Processing, Fat Content, and Glycemic Load. Weir TL, ed. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(2):e0117959. DOI: 10.1371/ journal.pone.0117959. 

Schwartz GR. Aspartame and breast and other cancers. Western Journal of Medicine. 1999;171(5-6):300-301. PMID: 10639863 

Shanik, M.H., Yuping, X., Skrha, J., Danker, R., Zick, Y., Roth, J. Insulin Resistance and Hyperinsulinemia. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(2): S262–S268. DOI: 10.2337/dco8-s264. 

Shapiro A, Tümer N, Gao Y, Cheng KY, Scarpace PJ. Prevention and reversal of diet-induced leptin resistance with a sugar-free diet despite high fat content. Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug;106(3):390-7. DOI: 10.1017/S000711451100033X. 

Shargal E, Kislev-Cohen R, Zigel L, Epstein S, Pilz-Burstein R, Tenenbaum G. Age-related maximal heart rate: examination and refinement of prediction equations. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2015 Oct;55(10):1207-18. PMID: 25389634 

Sharma RP, Coulombe RA Jr. Effects of repeated doses of aspartame on serotonin and its metabolite in various regions of the mouse brain. Food Chem Toxicol. 1987 Aug;25(8):565-8. PMID: 2442082 

Shuhaimi-Othman M, Yakub N, Ramle NA, Abas A. Comparative toxicity of eight metals on freshwater fish. Toxicol Ind Health. 2015 Sep;31(9):773-82. DOI: 10.1177/0748233712472519. 

Simon BR, Parlee SD, Learman BS, et al. Artificial Sweeteners Stimulate Adipogenesis and Suppress Lipolysis Independently of Sweet Taste Receptors. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2013;288(45):32475-32489. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M113.514034. 

Simopoulos AP. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and High Fructose intake in the Development of Metabolic Syndrome Brain, Metabolic Abnormalities, and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Nutrients. 2013;5(8):2901-2923. DOI: 10.3390/ nu5082901. 

Siri-Tarino PW, Sun Q, Hu FB, Krauss RM. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010;91(3):502-509. DOI: 10.3945/ ajcn.2008.26285. 

Slentz CA, Bateman LA, Willis LH, et al. Effects of aerobic vs. resistance training on visceral and liver fat stores, liver enzymes, and insulin resistance by HOMA in overweight adults from STRRIDE AT/RT. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011;301(5):E1033-E1039. DOI: 10.1152/ajpendo.00291.2011. 

Smith U, Kahn BB. Adipose tissue regulates insulin sensitivity: role of adipogenesis, de novo lipogenesis and novel lipids. Journal of internal medicine. 2016;280(5):465-475. DOI: 10.1111/ joim.12540. 

Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Manservigi M, Tibaldi E, Lauriola M, Falcioni L, Bua L. Aspartame administered in feed, beginning prenatally through life span, induces cancers of the liver and lung in male Swiss mice. Am. J. Ind. Med. 2010;53:1197-1206. DOI: 10.1002/ajim.20896 

Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Tibaldi E, Esposti DD, Lauriola M. Life-Span Exposure to Low Doses of Aspartame Beginning during Prenatal Life Increases Cancer Effects in Rats. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2007;115(9):1293-1297. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.10271. 

Soffritti M, Padovani M, Tibaldi E, Falcioni L, Manservisi F, Belpoggi F. The carcinogenic effects of aspartame: The urgent need for regulatory re-evaluation. Am J Ind Med. 2014 Apr;57(4):383-97. DOI: 10.1002/ajim.22296. 

Softic S, Cohen DE, Kahn CR. Role of Dietary Fructose and Hepatic de novo Lipogenesis in Fatty Liver Disease. Digestive diseases and sciences. 2016;61(5):1282-1293. DOI: 10.1007/ s10620-016-4054-0. 

Solinas M, Chauvet C, Thiriet N, El Rawas R, Jaber M. Reversal of cocaine addiction by environmental enrichment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Nov 4;105(44):17145-50. DOI: 10.1073/ pnas.0806889105. 

Solinas M1, Thiriet N, El Rawas R, Lardeux V, Jaber M. Environmental enrichment during early stages of life reduces the behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular effects of cocaine. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2009 Apr;34(5):1102-11. DOI: 10.1038/npp.2008.51. 

Solomou S, Korbonits M. The role of ghrelin in weight-regulation disorders: implications in clinical practice. Hormones (Athens). 2014 Oct-Dec;13(4):458-75. DOI: 10.14310/ horm.2002.1551. 

Spangler R, Wittkowski KM, Goddard NL, Avena NM, Hoebel BG, Leibowitz SF. Opiate-like effects of sugar on gene expression in reward areas of the rat brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2004 May 19;124(2):134-42. DOI: 10.1016/j.molbrainres.2004.02.013 

Spence C, Okajima K, Cheok AD, Petit O, Michel C. Eating with our eyes: From visual hunger to digital satiation. Brain Cogn. 2016 Dec;110:53-63. DOI: 10.1016/j.bandc.2015.08.006. 

Spencer M, Gupta A, Van Dam L, Shannon C, Menees S, Chey WD. Artificial Sweeteners: A Systematic Review and Primer for Gastroenterologists. Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. 2016;22(2):168-180. DOI: 10.5056/jnm15206. 

Spiller GA. Hand book of: Dietary fiber in human nutrition. CRC Press, New York 2000 Stanhope KL, Schwarz J-M, Havel PJ. Adverse metabolic effects of dietary fructose: Results from recent epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies. Current opinion in lipidology. 2013;24(3):198-206. DOI: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e3283613bca. 

Stanhope KL. Sugar consumption, metabolic disease and obesity: The state of the controversy. Critical reviews in clinical laboratory sciences. 2016;53(1):52-67. DOI: 10.3109/10408363.2015.1084990. 

Stanton MD. Drug use in Vietnam. A survey among army personnel in the two northern corps. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1972 Mar;26(3):279-86. PMID: 5059638 

Steinberger J, Daniels SR, Eckel RH, Hayman L, Lustig RH, McCrindle B, Mietus-Snyder ML; American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Progress and challenges in metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism. Circulation. 2009 Feb 3;119(4):628-47. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.191394. 

Stephan BC, Wells JC, Brayne C, Albanese E, Siervo M. Increased fructose intake as a risk factor for dementia. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2010 Aug;65(8):809-14. DOI: 10.1093/gerona/ glq079. 

Stigler FL, Lustig RH, Ma JI. Mechanisms, Pathophysiology, and Management of Obesity. N Engl J Med. 2017 Apr 13;376(15):1491. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1701944. 

Suez J, Korem T, Zeevi D, Zilberman-Schapira G, Thaiss CA, Maza O, Israeli D, Zmora N, Gilad S, Weinberger A, Kuperman Y, Harmelin A, Kolodkin-Gal I, Shapiro H, Halpern Z, Segal E, Elinav E. Artificial sweeteners induce glucose intolerance by altering the gut microbiota. Nature. 2014 Oct 9;514(7521):181-6. DOI: 10.1038/nature13793. 

Sussman S, Leventhal A, Bluthenthal RN, Freimuth M, Forster M, Ames SL. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2011, 8, 3399-3415; DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8083399. 

Swithers SE. Artificial sweeteners produce the counterintuitive effect of inducing metabolic derangements. Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM. 2013;24(9):431-441. DOI: 10.1016/j.tem.2013.05.005. 

Sylvetsky Meni AC, Swithers SE, Rother KI. Positive association between artificially sweetened beverage consumption and incidence of diabetes. Diabetologia. 2015;58(10):2455-2456. DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3694-5. 

Szajewska H, Szajewski T. Saturated Fat Controversy: Importance of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Sep 9;56(12):1947-51. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2015.1018037. 

Szczesna M, Zieba DA. Phenomenon of leptin resistance in seasonal animals: the failure of leptin action in the brain. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2015 Jul;52:60-70. DOI: 10.1016/j. domaniend.2015.03.002. 

Tappy L, Lê KA, Tran C, Paquot N. Fructose and metabolic diseases: new findings, new questions. Nutrition. 2010 NovDec;26(11-12):1044-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2010.02.014. 

Tchernof A, Després JP. Pathophysiology of human visceral obesity: an update. Physiol Rev. 2013 Jan;93(1):359-404. DOI: 10.1152/physrev.00033.2011. 

Tetri LH, Basaranoglu M, Brunt EM, Yerian LM, Neuschwander-Tetri BA. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;295(5):G987–95 DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.90272.2008 

Tetri LH, Basaranoglu M, Brunt EM, Yerian LM, Neuschwander-Tetri BA. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent. American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. 2008;295(5):G987-G995. DOI: 10.1152/ ajpgi.90272.2008. 

Thornley S, Sundborn G. The case to ban sugary food and drink from schools: these products are addictive, and kids will learn best without them. Pac Health Dialog. 2014 Mar;20(1):17- 21. PMID: 25928991 

Tomiyama AJ, Schamarek I, Lustig RH, et al. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods. Physiology & behavior. 2012;107(1):34-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.04.021. 

Urban LE, Roberts SB, Fierstein JL, Gary CE, Lichtenstein AH. Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat Content Per 1,000 Kilocalories: Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurants, United States, 2000–2013. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2014;11:E228. DOI: 10.5888/pcd11.140335. 

Urban LE, Roberts SB, Fierstein JL, Gary CE, Lichtenstein AH. Temporal Trends in Fast-Food Restaurant Energy, Sodium, Saturated Fat, and Trans Fat Content, United States, 1996– 2013. Preventing Chronic Disease. 2014;11:E229. DOI: 10.5888/ pcd11.140202. 

Urbanus BL, Schmidt SJ, Lee SY. Does information about sugar source influence consumer liking of products made with beet and cane sugars? J Food Sci. 2014 Nov;79(11):S2362-7. DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12668. 

Velasquez-Mieyer P, Cowan P, Arheart K, et al. Suppression of insulin secretion is associated with weight loss and altered macronutrient intake and preference in a subset of obese adults. International journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders: journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2003;27(2):219-226. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ijo.802227. 

Vendruscolo LF, Gueye AB, Darnaudéry M, Ahmed SH, Cador M. Sugar overconsumption during adolescence selectively alters motivation and reward function in adult rats. PLoS One. 2010 Feb 19;5(2):e9296. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009296. 

Verma S, Jensen D, Hart J, Mohanty SR. Predictive value of ALT levels for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Liver Int. 2013 Oct;33(9):1398-405. DOI: 10.1111/liv.12226. 

Vermote M, Versele V, Stok M, et al. The effect of a portion size intervention on French fries consumption, plate waste, satiety and compensatory caloric intake: an on-campus restaurant experiment. Nutrition Journal. 2018;17:43. DOI: 10.1186/ s12937-018-0352-z. 

Von Schacky C. Omega-3 Index and Cardiovascular Health. Nutrients. 2014;6(2):799-814. DOI: 10.3390/nu6020799. 

Vos MB, Lavine JE. Dietary fructose in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2013 Jun;57(6):2525-31. DOI: 10.1002/ hep.26299. 

Vreman RA, Goodell AJ, Rodriguez LA, Porco TC, Lustig RH, Kahn JG. Health and economic benefits of reducing sugar intake in the USA, including effects via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a microsimulation model. BMJ Open. 2017 Aug 3;7(8):e013543. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013543. 

Wansink B, van Ittersum K, Painter JE. Ice cream illusions bowls, spoons, and self-served portion sizes. Am J Prev Med. 2006 Sep;31(3):240-3. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2006.04.003 

Weiss R, Bremer AA, Lustig RH. What is metabolic syndrome, and why are children getting it? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2013;1281(1):123-140. DOI: 10.1111/nyas.12030. 

Westwater ML, Fletcher PC, Ziauddeen H. Sugar addiction: the state of the science. Eur J Nutr 2016;55(Suppl 2): 55. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-016-1229-6 

Westwater ML, Fletcher PC, Ziauddeen H. Sugar addiction: the state of the science. European Journal of Nutrition. 2016;55(Suppl 2):55-69. DOI: 10.1007/s00394-016-1229-6. 

Whytock KL, Shepherd SO, Wagenmakers AJM, Strauss JA. Hormone-sensitive lipase preferentially redistributes to lipid droplets associated with perilipin-5 in human skeletal muscle during moderate-intensity exercise. J Physiol. 2018 Mar 11. DOI: 10.1113/JP275502. 

Willett W. The case for banning trans fats. The FDA’s new policy on these deadly artificial fatty acids is long overdue. Sci Am. 2014 Mar;310(3):13. PMID: 24660319 

Wood R, Kubena K, O’Brien B, Tseng S, Martin G. Effect of butter, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched butter, trans fatty acid margarine, and zero trans fatty acid margarine on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy men. J Lipid Res. 1993 Jan;34(1):1-11. PMID: 8445333 

Yamashita Y, Yamashita M, Iida H. Selenium Content in Seafood in Japan. Nutrients. 2013;5(2):388-395. DOI: 10.3390/ nu5020388. 

Yoshimura E, Kumahara H, Tobina T, et al. Lifestyle Intervention Involving Calorie Restriction with or without Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Liver Fat in Adults with Visceral Adiposity. Journal of Obesity. 2014;2014:197216. DOI: 10.1155/2014/197216. 

Yu C-J, Du J-C, Chiou H-C, et al. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Adversely Associated with Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Tchounwou PB, ed. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016;13(7):678. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph13070678. 

Yu DT, Burch HB, Phillips MJ. Pathogenesis of fructose hepatotoxicity. Lab Invest. 1974;30(1):85-92 PMID: 4812811 

Yu J, Shen J, Sun TT, Zhang X, Wong N. Obesity, insulin resistance, NASH and hepatocellular carcinoma. Semin Cancer Biol. 2013 Dec;23(6 Pt B):483-91. DOI: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2013.07.003 

Zheng-Xiong X, Gaohong W, Elliot AS, Shi-Jiang L. Opiate Tolerance by Heroin Self-Administration: An fMRI Study in Rat. Magn Reson Med 2004;52:108–114. DOI: 10.1002/mrm.20119 

Zhou Y, Rui L. Leptin signaling and leptin resistance. Frontiers of medicine. 2013;7(2):207-222. DOI: 10.1007/s11684-013- 0263-5. 

Zhu Y, Hsu WH, Hollis JH. The effect of food form on satiety. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Jun;64(4):385-91. DOI: 10.3109/09637486.2012.759183. 

Zimmerman Hyman. Hepatotoxicity: The Adverse Effects of Drugs and Other Chemicals on the Liver. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 1999

Click here to get Let's Quit Sugar With Audiobook – Let's Quit Sugar at discounted price while it’s still available…

All orders are protected by SSL encryption – the highest industry standard for online security from trusted vendors.

Let's Quit Sugar With Audiobook – Let's Quit Sugar is backed with a 60 Day No Questions Asked Money Back Guarantee. If within the first 60 days of receipt you are not satisfied with Wake Up Lean™, you can request a refund by sending an email to the address given inside the product and we will immediately refund your entire purchase price, with no questions asked.

Show More

Related Articles

Back to top button
Close